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In the early 1960s, the insurgent Civil Rights Movement had dismantled the Jim Crow system of racial caste subordination using the tactics of non-violent civil disobedience, and demanding full citizenship rights for black people.But not much changed in the cities of the North and West.Students at rally marched, sang, clapped hands, and carried protest signs. A new generation of young blacks growing up in these cities faced new conditions, new forms of poverty and racism unfamiliar to their parents, and they sought to develop new forms of politics to address them.Black Panther Party membership "consisted of recent migrants whose families traveled north and west to escape the southern racial regime, only to be confronted with new forms of segregation and repression".Though under constant police surveillance, the Chicago chapter remained active and maintained their community programs until 1974.The history of the Black Panther Party is controversial.
By 1966 a "Black Power ferment" emerged, consisting largely of young urban blacks, posing a question the Civil Rights Movement could not answer: "how would black people in America win not only formal citizenship rights, but actual economic and political power? Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense).Huey and Bobby raised enough money to buy two shotguns by buying bulk quantities of the recently publicized Little Red Book and reselling them to leftist radicals and liberal intellectuals on the Berkeley campus at three times the price.According to Bobby Seale, they would "sell the books, make the money, buy the guns, and go on the streets with the guns.Newton (Defense Minister), Sherwin Forte, Bobby Seale (Chairman) Bottom: Reggie Forte and Little Bobby Hutton (Treasurer).Newsreel in which Kathleen Cleaver spoke at Hutton Memorial Park in Alameda County, California.